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Overview of IoT Communication Protocols

Internet of Things (IoT) devices can have wired or wireless connections. As far as the wireless IoT is concerned, many different wireless communication technologies and protocols for developers in the product band covering IoT can be used. Choosing the suitable communication type according to the requirements of the product and system is important for the process to operate efficiently. 

Although there are many communication technologies today, the most common ones are Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, and cellular communication. However, with the increase in smart technologies and the introduction of automation into buildings and cities, new communication protocols have been created for different applications. Depending on the application, the most appropriate communication protocol is determined by considering factors such as data requirement, power demand, security, and battery life, as well as application development. Let’s take a closer look at the aforementioned protocols.

 

 

Bluetooth

It’s developed for short-range, low-bandwidth, and low-latency communication.

  1. Standard: IEEE802.15.1

  2. Frequency Bands: 2.4 GHz

  3. Network: WPAN

  4. Topology: Star-Bus Network

  5. Power: 30 mA, Low Power

  6. Data Range: 1 Mbps

  7. Short Range, 15-30m

Cellular

It is an excellent choice for applications that need high throughput data and work over long distances. It can benefit from GSM/3G/4G/5G cellular communication features as it can provide a reliable high-speed connection to the Internet.

  1. Standard: GSM/GPRS/E DGE (2G), UMTS/HSPA (3G), LTE (4G)

  2. Frequency Bands: Common Cellular bands

  3. Network: WNAN

  4. High Power Consumption

  5. Long Range 10km(URBAN ) 50km (RURAL)

ZigBee

ZigBee was developed as a standard for high-level, low-cost communication protocols that enable the creation of personal area networks using small, low-power digital radios that can transport data over larger distances.

  1. Standard: IEEE802.15.4

  2. Frequency Bands: 2.4 GHz

  3. Network: WPAN

  4. Topology: Star, Mesh Cluster Network

  5. Power: 30 mA, Low Power

  6. Data Range: 250 kbps

  7. Short Range, 10-100m

RFID

A reader and a small radio frequency transponder called an RF tag are the two components of an RFID system. This tag has been electronically programmed with unique information that can be read from a distance.

  1. Standard: RFID

  2. Frequency Bands: 125 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 902-928 MHz

  3. Network: Proximity

  4. Topology: P2P Network

  5. Power: Ultra-Low Power

  6. Data Range: 4 Mbps

  7. Short Range, Up to 200 m

NFC

NFC is a very short-range wireless communication technology that allows data to be sent between devices by touching them or bringing them within a few centimeters of each other. RFID and NFC have similar technical ideas.

  1. Standard: ISO/IEC 14443

  2. Frequency Bands: 125Khz, 13.56Mhz, 860Mhz

  3. Network: P2P Network

  4. Topology: P2P Network

  5. Power: 50 mA, Low power

  6. Data Range: 106/212/424 kbps

  7. Very Short Range, 0-10cm/0-1m/10cm-1m

6LoWPAN

Because it is an IP-based standard internetworking protocol, 6loWPAN is the first and most widely used standard in IoT communication protocols. It can be directly connected to another IP network without the use of intermediaries such as translation gateways or proxies.

  1. Standard: IEEE802.15.4

  2. Frequency Bands: 868Mhz(EU), 915Mhz(USA), 2.4Ghz(Global)

  3. Network: WPAN

  4. Topology: Star, Mesh Network

  5. Power: Low Power Consumption

  6. Data Range: 250 kbps

  7. Short Range, 10-100 m

Z-Wave

It is used primarily for home automation and small commercial domains. It can connect 30-50 nodes.

  1. Standard: Z-Wave

  2. Frequency Bands: 868 MHz – 908 MHz

  3. Network: WPAN

  4. Topology: Mesh Network

  5. Power: 2.5 mA, Low Power Consumption

  6. Data Range: 40 kbps

  7. 30m (indoors), 100m (outdoors)

Wi-Fi

It has an important advantage because its existing infrastructure is very large, it is widely used in homes/offices and it is possible to transfer large-scale data. However, it is less commonly used in more complex applications due to the fact that it causes excessive power consumption, especially for small-sized devices in IoT applications.

  1. Standard: 802.11n

  2. Frequency Bands: 2.4 GHz ve 5 GHz

  3. Data Range: 600Mbps

  4. Short Range, 50m

LoRaWAN

Provides wide-area communication. It has optimum properties for smart city and industrial applications. Its biggest advantage is that it provides low cost, mobile, and two-way communication.

  1. Standard: LoRaWAN

  2. Frequency Bands: Variable

  3. Data Range: 0,3-50 kbps

  4. Long Range, 2-5km, 15km

Because there are so many wireless technologies in the IoT network, each has its own set of features and advantages. However, determining which one is the ideal one is difficult. As a result, someone must answer the question, “Which technology fits your requirements the most?”. We hope that with this article we were able to remove at least some of the question marks and obstacles on your way to finding the optimum wireless technology.

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